Smith A. Availability of Alternatives within Teaching and Training. Paper presented at: Alternatives in the Mainstream: Innovations in Life Science Education and Training. 2nd InterNICHE Conference; 2005 May 12-15; Oslo, Norway


Teachers and trainers planning courses that may involve the use of animals are now required by law in many countries to examine the possibilities for implementing the ‘three Rs’ of Russell & Burch (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement). The last decade has seen an enormous increase in the number of potential alternatives or supplements to the use of animals in teaching and training. The internet has made it possible to spread information about these products, and in some cases demonstration versions, worldwide with a minimum of cost. There are now many information centres that not only provide factual information but also product reviews and loans systems.

This lecture will describe the variety of alternatives that are now available, using the growth of the NORINA database of audiovisual alternatives as an example ( NORINA contains information on nearly 4,000 audiovisual alternatives that may be used in teaching and training at all levels from junior school to university. The lecture will also address the challenge of accessing relevant information by describing relevant databases, information
centres and guidelines for the use of animals in teaching.