Tavakkoli Attar F, Patel RV, Moallem M. Haptic interaction and visualization of elastic deformation. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2005; 111:556-9

PMID: 15718796


In this paper, we represent a new method to model real-time local and global deformations on a variety of three-dimensional sculptured surfaces governed by physical principles. The deformable objects are highly elastic with linear behavior in the range of typical haptic forces. A deformation model is developed for incompressible material based on a mapping technique and the superposition principle. The law of energy conservation is used to calculate real-time force reflection. Using the divergence theorem, force reflection is calculated for volumetric deformations.