Zhang Y, Phillips R. A dynamic friction model for haptic simulation of needle insertion. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2005; 111:615-621

PMID: 15718809


This paper describes a new friction model, termed the brush model, suitable for haptic simulations of needle insertion in virtual environments. A novel two-layer surface contact model is presented that provides real-time rendering of friction forces at haptic refresh rates. A significant modification to the brush model is also presented, leading to a new friction model, termed the fixed bristle brush model. Simulation results show that the two models can accurately reflect the experimentally observed friction characteristics. This paper presents a simulation of friction during needle insertion; results agree with the experimental observations.