Ribeiro Gaspar B, de Assis Neto AC. Three-dimensional printing educational anatomical model of the patellar luxation in dogs. PLoS One. 2021 Jul 30;16(7):e0255288

PMID: 34329358


Few studies are available for assessing the current situation of 3D printing in veterinary medicine, due to the recent popularization of this technology. This study aimed to simulate a 3D model of the femorotibiopatellar joint of dogs based on the medial patellar luxation. The scanning, editing and printing of the femur, tibia, fibula and patella of a dog from the Laboratory of Anatomy of FMVZ USP were performed.

Three femorotibiopatellar joint models were printed: one representing a healthy join without alterations; the second one with the medially deviated tibial tuberosity; and a last one representing the shifted tibial tuberosity and the trochlear sulcus flattened as consequence. The 3D edition consisted of medial rotation of the tibia and tibial tuberosity (22° against the healthy tibia), and the flatten of the medial femoral condyle (0.2 cm) and femoral trochlear groove. After printing, the corresponding measurements were taken with the alterations and the bone models were made with elastics to represent the anatomical components of the dog joint. Finally, the measurements corresponding to the distance from the patellar ligament to the lateral femoral condyle were taken in each specimen, in order to observe the change in position of the ligament according to the occurrence of the bone alterations.

We printed 3D articular anatomical components of the femurotibiopatellar joint that could be valuable educational tools for the study of medial patellar luxation in dogs.