Bismuth J, Donovan MA, O'Malley MK, El Sayed HF, Naoum JJ, Peden EK, Davies MG, and Lumsden AB. Incorporating simulation in vascular surgery education. J Vasc Surg.2010 Oct;52(4):1072-80.Epub 2010 Jul 31.

PMID: 20674243


The traditional apprenticeship model introduced by Halsted of "learning by doing" may just not be valid in the modern practice of vascular surgery. The model is often criticized for being somewhat unstructured because a resident's experience is based on what comes through the "door." In an attempt to promote uniformity of training, multiple national organizations are currently delineating standard curricula for each trainee to govern the knowledge and cases required in a vascular residency. However, the outcomes are anything but uniform. This means that we graduate vascular specialists with a surprisingly wide spectrum of abilities. Use of simulation may benefit trainees in attaining a level of technical expertise that will benefit themselves and their patients. Furthermore, there is likely a need to establish a simulation-based certification process for graduating trainees to further ascertain minimum technical abilities.