Martinsen S and Smith A. Norwegian veterinary training based on animal alternatives [abstract]. ALTEX. 2005;22(Special Issue):27


This presentation describes the steps taken by a Norwegian veterinary student to complete her veterinary education using alternatives to laboratory animals. This included the use of computer simulations, student self-experiments in physiology, dissections of superfluous material from the pathology department and naturally dead animals, and surgical training through beneficial procedures in veterinary clinics. The presentation will also discuss the various ethical issues involved and the range of attitudes that students, teachers and veterinary schools in general must tackle when planning clinical teaching and training that may involve animals or animal material. The merits of providing courses without animal material for conscientious objectors, or alternatively phasing out animal use for an entire student class regardless of individual views, will be discussed. Possible alternatives to laboratory animal use, and beneficial or neutral work with animals, will be described, building on the authors' experiences with databases such as NORINA ( and organisations such as InterNICHE ( The Veterinary School in Oslo has a standing committee on the use of animals in teaching. The work of this committee will also be described.

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Link to journal: ALTEX - Alternatives to Animal Experimentation