Holloway M, Berggren E, Dura A, Gribaldo L., Whelan, M. . Introducing the Three Rs into secondary schools, universities and continuing education programmes. EUR 30579 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2021


EURL ECVAM undertakes a number of initiatives to improve knowledge sharing on the Three Rs (the Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal use in science). These include providing support to the teaching of the Three Rs and related subjects in secondary schools, universities and at early-career science levels. This report describes how to incorporate Three Rs teaching into the curriculum of schools and universities and aims to reach decision-makers and influencers within education systems who contribute to educational policy-making at European, Member State or local level. The content includes an introduction to the principles of the Three Rs; the relevant EU legal framework promoting the Three Rs; ethical considerations of animal use in science; as well as how innovative non-animal science is opening up new career and job opportunities for young people. The current state of play of teaching the Three Rs in education is described and recommendations are made on how to introduce new learning scenarios and resources to make Three Rs education more attractive and more consistent for education programmes at secondary school, university and professional levels.