Winer JN, Verstraete FJM, Cissell DD, Lucero S, Athanasiou KA, Arzi B. The application of 3-dimensional printing for preoperative planning in oral and maxillofacial surgery in dogs and cats. Veterinary Surgery. 2017,46(7):942-951


OBJECTIVE: To describe the application of 3-dimensional (3D) printing in advanced oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) and to discuss the benefits of this modality in surgical planning, student and resident training, and client education.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs (n = 28) and cats (n = 4) with 3D printing models of the skulls.
METHODS: The medical records of 32 cases with 3D printing prior to major OMFS were reviewed.
RESULTS: Indications for 3D printing included preoperative planning for mandibular reconstruction after mandibulectomy (n = 12 dogs) or defect nonunion fracture (n = 6 dogs, 2 cats), mapping of ostectomy location for temporomandibular joint ankylosis or pseudoankylosis (n = 4 dogs), assessment of palatal defects (n = 2 dogs, 1 cat), improved understanding of complex anatomy in cases of neoplasia located in challenging locations (n = 2 dogs, 1 cat), and in cases of altered anatomy secondary to trauma (n = 2 dogs).
CONCLUSION: In the authors' experience, 3D printed models serve as excellent tools for OMFS planning and resident training. Furthermore, 3D printed models are a valuable resource to improve clients' understanding of the pet's disorder and the recommended treatment.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Three-dimensional printed models should be considered viable tools for surgical planning, resident training, and client education in candidates for complex OMFS.

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