Tavakoli M, Patel RV, Moallem M. A haptic interface for computer-integrated endoscopic surgery and training. Virtual Reality. 2006;9:160-176



Haptic feedback has the potential to provide superior performance in computer-integrated surgery and training. This paper discusses the design of a user interface that is capable of providing force feedback in all the degrees of freedom (DOFs) available during endoscopic surgery. Using the Jacobian matrix of the haptic interface and its singular values, methods are proposed for analysis and optimization of the interface performance with regard to the accuracy of force feedback, the range of applicable forces, and the accuracy of control. The haptic user interface is used with a sensorized slave robot to form a master–slave test-bed for studying haptic interaction in a minimally invasive environment. Using the master–slave test-bed, teleoperation experiments involving a single degree of freedom surgical task (palpation) are conducted. Different bilateral control methods are compared based on the transparency of the master–slave system in terms of transmitting the critical task-related information to the user in the context of soft-tissue surgical applications.