Tay C, Khajuria A, and Gupte C. Simulation training: a systematic review of simulation in arthroscopy and proposal of a new competency-based training framework. Int J Surg.2014;12(6):626-33.Epub 2014 Apr 30.

PMID: 24793233


Traditional orthopaedic training has followed an apprenticeship model whereby trainees enhance their skills by operating under guidance. However the introduction of limitations on training hours and shorter training programmes mean that alternative training strategies are required.

To perform a literature review on simulation training in arthroscopy and devise a framework that structures different simulation techniques that could be used in arthroscopic training.

A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Databases were performed. Search terms included "virtual reality OR simulator OR simulation" and "arthroscopy OR arthroscopic".

14 studies evaluating simulators in knee, shoulder and hip arthroplasty were included. The majority of the studies demonstrated construct and transference validity but only one showed concurrent validity. More studies are required to assess its potential as a training and assessment tool, skills transference between simulators and to determine the extent of skills decay from prolonged delays in training. We also devised a "ladder of arthroscopic simulation" that provides a competency-based framework to implement different simulation strategies.

The incorporation of simulation into an orthopaedic curriculum will depend on a coordinated approach between many bodies. But the successful integration of simulators in other areas of surgery supports a possible role for simulation in advancing orthopaedic education.