Zaneb H and Stanek C. Three Rs in the research and education system of Pakistan: Perspectives and possibilities. AATEX 2008;14(Special Issue):229-233


Concept of 3R in Pakistan is a self-regulated system for individual institutes and research organizations, and animals are used variably for teaching and experiments.
1. Current situation:
   a. Principles of 3R are practiced only when a procedure requires following international protocols.
   b. Legislation mostly covers prevention of cruelty to animals.
   c. Religion provides guidelines about conduct to animals, calling them companions and means of utility.
   d. International collaboration is gradually promoting respect for animal rights.
2. Areas of larger impact in education system:
   a. Veterinary Gross Anatomy
   b. Veterinary Surgery
3. Recommendations:
   a. Legislation for animal experimentation with the aim to reach International Standards in 5 years.
   b. Education and training of researchers for meeting the international standards of 3Rs.
   c. Establishment of 'Ethic Commissions' in research/teaching institutes.
   d. Reduction and replacement of animals in education by introduction of alternatives and residency programmes

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Author's keywords: 3Rs, Pakistan, veterinary education, animal experimentation

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Link to journal: AATEX - Alternatives to Animal Testing and Experimentation