Usón-Gargallo J, Usón-Casaús JM, Pérez-Merino EM, Soria-Gálvez F, Morcillo E, Enciso S, Sánchez-Margallo FM. Validation of a realistic simulator for veterinary gastrointestinal endoscopy training. J Vet Med Educ. 2014 Autumn;41(3):209-17

PMID: 24947679


This article reports on the face, content, and construct validity of a new realistic composite simulator (Simuldog) used to provide training in canine gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy. The basic endoscopic procedures performed on the simulator were esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), gastric biopsy (GB), and gastric foreign body removal (FBR). Construct validity was assessed by comparing the performance of novices (final-year veterinary students and recent graduates without endoscopic experience, n=30) versus experienced subjects (doctors in veterinary medicine who had performed more than 50 clinical upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures as a surgeon, n=15). Tasks were scored based on completion time, and specific rating scales were developed to assess performance. Internal consistency and inter-rater agreement were assessed. Face and content validity were determined using a 5-point Likert-type scale questionnaire. The novices needed considerably more time than the experts to perform EGD, GB, and FBR, and their performance scores were significantly lower (p<.010). Inter-rater agreement and the internal validity of the rating scales were good. Face validity was excellent, and both groups agreed that the endoscopy scenarios were very realistic. The experts highly valued the usefulness of Simuldog for veterinary training and as a tool for assessing endoscopic skills. Simuldog is the first validated model specifically developed to be used as a training tool for endoscopy techniques in small animals.