• Tuggy ML. Virtual reality flexible sigmoidoscopy simulator training: impact on resident performance. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1998 Nov-Dec;11(6):426-33
  • Turnwald GH, Sponenberg DP, Meldrum JB. Part II: directions and objectives of curriculum structure at veterinary medical and other health professions schools. J Vet Med Educ. 2008 Spring;35(1):74-90
  • Uematsu M, Suzuki N, Hattori A, Otake Y, Hayashibe M, Suzuki S, Uchiyama A. Development of a data fusion system using color information for real-time intraoperative liver surface measurement. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2003;94:367-9
  • Uppal V, Kearns R, McGrady E. Evaluation of M43B Lumbar puncture simulator-II as a training tool for identification of the epidural space and lumbar puncture. Anaesthesia. 2011 Jun; 66(6):493-496
  • Uribe JI, Ralph WM Jr, Glaser AY, Fried MP. Learning curves, acquisition, and retention of skills trained with the endoscopic sinus surgery simulator. American Journal of Rhinology. 2004;18(2):87-92
  • Uruthiralingam U, Rea PM.. Augmented and Virtual Reality in Anatomical Education - A Systematic Review. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1235:89-101. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-37639-0_5.
  • Usyk T, Kerckhoffs R.. Three dimensional electromechanical model of porcine heart with penetrating wound injury. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2005;111:568-73
  • Vailhe E and Matonick J. Transparent laparoscopic simulator with adjustable physiological conditions for product development and surgical training. Paper presented at: The Three Rs - Together it's possible. 8th World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences; 2011 Aug 21-25; Montreal, Canada
  • Valliyate M, Robinson N, Goodman J. Current concepts in simulation and other alternatives for veterinary education: a review. Veterinární Medicína. 2012, 57(7), 325-337
  • van der Valk J, Brown M, Gauthier C, Howard B, Kurosawa TM, Rose M, van Zutphen B. Education and Training in the 3Rs. ALTEX [CD-ROM]. 2010;27(Special Issue 1):169-175
  • van der Valk J, Dewhurst D, Hughes I, Atkinson J, Balcombe J, Braun H, Gabrielson K, Gruber F, Miles J, Nab J, Nardi J, van Wilgenburg H, Zinko U, Zurlo J. Alternatives to the use of animals in higher education - the report and recommendations of ECVAM workshop. ATLA. 1999,27:39-52
  • van Dongen K, Ahlberg G, Bonavina L, Carter F, Grantcharov T, Hyltander A, Schijven M, Stefani A, van der Zee D, Broeders I. European consensus on a competency-based virtual reality training program for basic endoscopic surgical psychomotor skills. Surg Endosc. 2011 Jan;25(1):166-171
  • van Empel PJ, van der Veer WM, van Rijssen LB, Cuesta MA, Scheele F, Bonjer HJ, Meijerink WJ. Mapping the maze of minimally invasive surgery simulators. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2012 Jan-Feb;22(1):51-60
  • van Wilgenburg H. Implementation of computer-based alternatives in biomedical education. In: Jukes N and Chiuia M. From Guinea Pig to Computer Mouse: Alternative Methods for a Progressive, Humane Education. 2nd ed. Leicester, UK: InterNICHE; 2003. p. 88-94
  • van Zutphenl B, van der Valk J. Education and training: a basis for the introduction of the three Rs alternatives into animal research. ATLA. 1995,23:123-127
  • VandeWoude S. Development of a model animal welfare act curriculum. J Vet Med Educ. 2007 Winter;34(5):600-4
  • Varban OA, Ardestani A, Peyre S, and Smink DS. Assessing the effectiveness of surgical skills laboratories: a national survey. Simul Healthc.2013 Apr;8(2):91-7.
  • Vassiliou MC, Dunkin BJ, Marks JM, Fried GM. FLS and FES: Comprehensive Models of Training and Assessment. Surgical Clinics of North America 2010 Jun;90(3):535-558
  • Velle S, Hal T. Virtual Frog Dissection—Reality Check?. Unpublished. 1999
  • Velmahos GC, Toutouzas KG, Sillin LF, Chan L, Clark RE, Theodorou D, Maupin F. Cognitive task analysis for teaching technical skills in an inanimate surgical skills laboratory. Am J Surg. 2004 Jan;187(1):114-9